IETF: Internet Engineering Task Force, these are the folk who look after the network layer of the Internet. They write the famous RFC’s (Request for Comments) which are documents that explain their technical standard.
IEEE: Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers: these folks implement and come up with their own ideas and make real what they talk about and also what the IETF talks about. I’d say they are mainly physical layer folk.
W3C: World Wide Web consortium, these are the people who look after the web application layer standards
FCC: the champions of Net Neutrality, they are pushing for Net Nuetrality Laws
ICANN: looks after DNS stuff on the Internet and also used to look after IANA,
IANA: hands out the IP addresses to the rest of the world.